International Journal of Advanced Research and Development

International Journal of Advanced Research and Development


International Journal of Advanced Research and Development
International Journal of Advanced Research and Development
Vol. 1, Issue 5 (2016)

Guıdance and Awareness on zika virus to Protect community


Satish Kumar Passyavula, J Venkat Reddy, Susan Binoy

Zika fever (also known as Zika virus disease) is an illness caused by the zika virus Most cases have no symptoms, but when present they are usually mild and can resemble dengue fever Symptoms may include fever, red eyes, joint pain, headache, and a maculopapular rash Symptoms generally last less than seven days. It has not caused any reported deaths during the initial infection. Infection during pregnancy causes mi9crocephaly and other brain malformations in some babies. Infections in adults has been linked to Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS). Zika fever is mainly spread via the bite of mosquitos within the ades kind It can also be sexualy transmitted from a man to his sex partners and potentially spread by blood transfusion. Infections in pregnant women can be spread to the baby. Diagnosis is by testing the blood, urine, or saliva for the presence of Zika virus RNA when the person is sick. Epidemiology Countries that have past or current evidence of Zika virus transmission (as of January 2016) The very first known case of Zika fever was in a sentinel rhesus monkey stationed on a tree platform in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947.Population surveys at the time in Uganda found a 6.1%prevalence The first human cases were reported in Nigeria in 1954. A few outbreaks have been reported in tropical Africa and in some areas in Southeast Asia. There have been no documented cases of Zika virus in the Indian subcontinent. Surveys have found antibodies to Zika in healthy people in India which could indicate past exposure, though it could also be due to cross-reaction with other flaviviruses. By using phylogenetic analysis of Asian strains, it was estimated that Zika virus had moved to Southeast Asia by 1945. In 1977–1978, Zika virus infection was described as a cause of fever in Indonesia. Before 2007, there were only 13 reported natural infections with Zika virus, all with a mild, self-limited febrile illness. Prevention involves decreasing mosquitoes bites in areas where the disease occurs and proper use of condoms. Efforts to prevent bites include the use of insect repellant, covering much of the body with clothing, mosquito nets, and getting rid of standing water where mosquitoes reproduce. There is no effective vaccine. Health officials recommended that women in areas affected by the 2015-2016 zika out break consider putting off pregnancy and that pregnant women not travel to these areas. While there is no specific treatment, paracetamol (acetaminophen) may help with the symptoms. Admission to hospital is rarely necessary. The virus that causes the disease was first isolated in 1947. The first documented outbreak among people occurred in 2007 in the Federated States of Micronesia As of January 2016, the disease was occurring in twenty regions of the America It is also known to occur in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific. Due to an outbreak which started in Brazil in 2015, world health organisation declared it public health of international emergency condition in February 2016 Most people who are infected have no or few symptoms. Otherwise the most common signs and symptoms of Zika fever are fever, rash, conjunctivitis (red eyes), muscle and joint pain, and headache, which are similar to signs and symptoms dengu and chikungunya fever The time from a mosquito bite to developing symptoms is not yet known, but is probably a few days to a week. The disease lasts for several days to a week and is usually mild enough that people do not have to go to a hospital.
Pages : 113-115