Urbanization and sustainable smart cities: A global prospective
The predictable growth of cities produces exceptional sustainability challenges. Increasing demands for water, sanitation, education, healthcare, housing, transport, energy and public service are testing the limitations of the infrastructures available in the city. In these cities people lived in temporary housing lacking basic services, like sanitation and access to safe drinking water. Every year, millions new people move to such housing, increasing the demand for services. Cities are responsible for 67 percent(approximately) of the global energy demand and consume 40 percent of world’s energy in overall. On the other hand, these cities are responsible for about 70 percent emissions of global greenhouse gases, contributing to climate change. In addition, these centers experience increasingly natural disasters also. In this way, they also have to witness social tensions created by rising levels of inequality and unemployment, air and water pollution, traffic jam, violence and crime, etc. Meanwhile, cities offer great opportunity for economic development. About eighty percent of the world’s gross domestic product gets generated in cities. On average, the earning of urban citizens is three times than those of their rural counterparts. Cities also have center of universities and are critical venues of research and innovation, political activities and cultural exchange. People living in larger cities tend to have a smaller energy track requiring less road and communication facilities. They also consume less resources, and have higher levels of productivity. Smart Cities have emerged as one response to the challenges and opportunities created by rapid urbanization. This paper reveals that Smart Cities advance sustainable development. It also includes that how our cities grow and how the challenges faced by cities can be addressed. As cities are engines of growth of any nation, so their sustainable development is primarily required.