Underground water contamination in India: Vulnerability & overview of legal frame work
Ground water is a vital component and cradle of our life. The ground water resources are being used for various purposes like drinking, irrigation, industrial purpose etc. Due to geogenic and anthropogenic activities the underground water gets deteriorated in its quality. The quality of ground water is very hazardous so that they can cause diseases while consuming it. The underground water is completely exploited and they contains substances like high concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, iron, arsenic, total hardness and few toxic metal ions have been noticed in large areas in several states of India. They also contain wide varieties of dissolved inorganic chemical constituents in various concentrations as a result of chemical and biochemical interactions between water and the geological materials. This study found that the continuous disposal of effluents on land, which has limited capacity to assimilate the pollution load, has led to groundwater pollution. Since the farmers had already shifted their cropping pattern to salt-tolerant crops (like jasmine, curry leaf, tobacco, etc.) and substituted their irrigation source from shallow open wells to deep bore wells and/or river water, the impact of pollution on livelihoods was minimized it has also been noticed that in some locations industries are supplying drinking water to the affected households. This paper contains the reasons for contamination of underground water. This paper also highlights evolution and development of environmental related common laws and Functioning of various authorities and society.